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Home About Help Search. The initial event in the utilization of fat as an energy source is the hydrolysis of triacylglycerols by lipases, an event referred to as lipolysis. Halina Augustyniak et al.

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The hydration of enoyl CoA is a prelude to the second oxidation reaction, which converts the hydroxyl group at C -3 into a keto group and generates NADH. The acyl group is transferred back to CoA on the matrix side of the membrane. Peripheral tissues gain access to the lipid energy reserves stored in adipose tissue through three stages of processing.

However, the equilibrium constant for this reaction for carnitine is near 1, apparently because carnatine and its esters are solvated differently from most other alcohols and their esters because of the zwitterionic nature of carnitine. Clear Turn Off Turn On. You may have already requested this item. This molecule is an intermediate in both the glycolytic and the gluconeogenic pathways. Allow this favorite library to be seen by others Keep this favorite library private.


Biochemia: Jeremy M. Berg, John L. Tymoczko, Lubert Stryer: : Books

The other two phosphoryl groups of the ATP substrate are released as pyrophosphate. The E-mail message field is required. Thus, activation by adenylation recurs in part because of convergent evolution. Carnitine Carries Long-Chain Activated Fatty Acids into the Mitochondrial Matrix Fatty acids are activated on the outer mitochondrial membrane, whereas they are oxidized in the mitochondrial matrix.

Fatty acyl chains containing from 12 to 18 carbon atoms are oxidized by the long-chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase. This reaction is quite favorable because the equivalent of two molecules of ATP is hydrolyzed, whereas only one high-transfer-potential compound is formed. The shortened acyl CoA then undergoes another cycle of oxidation, starting with the reaction catalyzed by acyl CoA dehydrogenase Figure This reaction, which is catalyzed by carnitine acyltransferase II carnitine palmitoyl transferase IIis simply biocemia reverse of the reaction that takes place in the cytosol.

Biochemis preceding reactions have oxidized the methylene group at C -3 to a keto group. Hence, the stoichiometry of oxidation of palmitoyl CoA is. Would you also like to submit a review for this item? Third, the fatty acids are broken down in a step-by-step fashion into acetyl CoAwhich is then processed in the citric acid cycle.


How is the overall reaction driven forward? Finally, the translocase returns carnitine to the cytosolic side in exchange for an incoming acyl carnitine.


First, the fatty acid reacts with ATP to form an acyl adenylate. Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions. We can now calculate the energy yield derived from the oxidation of a fatty acid. Medium-chain C 8 -C 10 fatty acids, which do not require carnitine to enter the mitochondria, are oxidized normally in these patients.

Subsequent work demonstrated that ebrg are activated before they enter the mitochondrial matrix.

By these means, free fatty acids are made accessible as a fuel in other tissues. More like this Similar Items. The enzyme-bound acyl-adenylate intermediate is not unique to the synthesis of acyl CoA. Triacylglycerols in adipose tissue are converted into free fatty acids and glycerol for release into the bloodstream in response to hormonal signals.

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